B-G431-ESC and AS5047/AS5048

Has anybody done the modifications to use the SPI of the G431 µC to communicate with an encoder like AS5047 / AS5048?

Using SPI3 on PB3/4 means also to use PB5 for MOSI.
The signal on PB5 is labeld GPIO_BEMF. Did you remove the diodes D11/13/15?

Using USART1 looks impossible to me, since RX and TX are connected to the hall inputs or the timer outputs.

Maybe using USART3. One can use CAN_TX with USART3 TX on PB9 , The USART3 RX would be on PB11, but here BEMF3 is routed. One could remove R63.

The signal CAN_RX is routed to PA11. But this looks useless because this is USART1_CTS. Is that a design flaw of the STM-Board?

I did not remove the diodes and I am using USART1. If you follow the instructions, it will work (at least, it does work for a few others plus me). Of course, as a consequence, you can neither use hall sensors nir BEMF sensing after the SPI modification.